Systematics is paramount in biology, since is based on history, and covers the descriptive and other systematic areas of the branch of biology. His method was originally designed to be able to observe species.
The Linnean revolution arose from the rapid accumulation of a large amount of highly descriptive information in the 18th century. Besides, essential agreements were established detailing the nomenclature and selection of living beings. The systematics gained from the development of descriptive statistics, as we will see below.
Definition and concept of systematics in biology
Systematics is one of the fields of biology that is in charge of the selection of the species, as well as of the living beings that are known. It is the part that comprises the history of evolution, such as the well-known phylogenesis.
Systematics is responsible for describing and detailing the biodiversity that is in our world. The basic unit of study in this area is gender, which is a group of living organisms genetically and phenotypically Similarcapable of reproducing with each other and generating many fertile and viable offspring.
In his research, he uses many tools and concepts from related fields, such as taxonomy and nomenclature. It is more of a technique than a discipline, but there are no other biological areas in contact with genetic studies of this specialty.
The organization running the taxonomy contains a tree support. The parts of this are separated into others and subdivided into some minor ones. The taxonomy aims unite living things that show similarities between them and distinguish them from other beings, and these units are initially separated into various hierarchical categories.
The taxonomy of fungi leads to infections in humans and has been changed by the development of DNA, which allows progress in the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships between microorganisms. Fungal systematics is being rapidly transformed by phylogenetic studies.
The species of an organism that inhabits the Earth, including human beings, can understand an intricate network of which they are part. For this reason, the climate, the atmosphere, the water, the soil and other elements of the planet are also important to its existence. Thousands of species are discovered by scientific-systematic biologists, who are responsible for studying the biological diversity of the planet.
What is systematics in biology for?
The systematics in biology serves to understand the evolutionary relationships of an organism, and to interpret how life has been generated. It is a basic science It has a great scope for your study, allowing to describe biological diversity and find an underlying order to said diversity. It also allows us to understand which processes are responsible for the generation of this diversity, which represents a very general system.
The systematics help in the formation of a general selection system for the species, as well as in the preparation of documentary means that allow their identification. In this way, they help make the growth of biodiversity easier to understand and map, encompassing the scope of species diversity, which helps us protect the planet and its inhabitants, including humans.
Better knowledge about the planet’s biodiversity It leads us to have a great capacity to stimulate the specific sensitivity of conserving natural habitats and protecting life in all its forms.
What are the characteristics of systematics in biology?
The characteristics most necessary to describe to systematics in biology are usually:
- contain the essential unit of the selection is the species.
- the system is genetic diversity.
- Grouping of living beings.
- Has total organization knowledge of organisms.
- Includes the development Of Phylogenetics, ecological and taxonomic.
- Two species reproduce with each other and produce highly viable offspring.
- To classify some of the species it is Linnaeus nomenclature used.
- It has in itself a theoretical background and trumps taxonomy and a predictive one.
- build to growth anatomy or genetics of the populations.
- Build an evolutionary biology in the areas of simple biogeography and biodiversity.
- Stability for classify an organism.
- Apply binomial nomenclature consistently to species in general.
- Evaluate the normal human environment and tries to represent it in an organized way.
How is the classification of systematics in biology?
The systematic classifications can store and transmit information about living beings, which makes it possible to make predictions and specifications.
Groups are created where the organisms that have a lots of characters in common since all organisms are related to each other, to a greater or lesser extent, by descending evolutionary pathways. Systematics is divided into different schools or branches, which propose necessary methods to understand and represent evolutionary history. Some of these are:
The evolutionary type systematics
Are used some primordial fundamentals to select and order life relatively:
- Minimal monophyly.
- Adaptive niches.
- Morphological or body distinction.
- Species richness.
Huxley proposed a formal method for redesign phylogeny and represent classifications more clearly. To specify phylogeny, evolutionists rely on morphological criteria, such as degree of adaptation and adaptive radiation.
Considering that it is impossible to establish a true and impartial history of the evolution of life, it is suggested to develop stable and useful categories to classify it instead of trying to reconstruct its history. This is achieved through the use of phenograms, which are mathematical representations that consider the level of similarity between species.
As a result, the school of RR Sokal was born, who thinks that phylogeny is impossible to determine objectively and therefore does not aim to reconstruct phylogenies, but to establish consistent classifications instead. the phenetic school absorbs the maximum number of characters needed without asking for the meaning of evolution. He states that there is no way to make a decision if a character is homologous.
There are two types of taxonomy: the popular and the scientific. In addition, there are artificial classification systems, natural or formal classification systems, phylogenetic systems, and synthetic systems.
Cladistic or cladistic systematics
Willi Hennig’s initial idea was monophyly. Cladists consider a group to be monophyletic if it includes the ancestral species and all of its descendants. The criterion for identifying a monophyletic group is the presence of an apomorphic character, that is, a feature that is only present in that group and their descendants and not in other groups. Currently, cladistics uses methods such as phylogenetic analysis and the parsimony principle to construct cladograms.
This part of the systematics builds names to assign to plants or types of plants as taxa. The elaboration of the names is regulated by various norms embodied in its international code.
Systematics, within biology, has the function of developing classification systems that best express the different degrees of kinship between living organisms. These systems are powerful tools that can help people understand, use, and preserve the great biological diversity of the planet.
Over the years, it has been achieved study systematic biology in depth and the complexity involved. There are several scientific pages that offer detailed information on this discipline. However, it is important to bear in mind that the knowledge obtained by this means is very specific and is limited to what is addressed in said sources.