Magnetism is one of the fundamental forces of nature, which is manifested through the attraction or repulsion between certain material objects. Magnets are the most common objects with this property, but magnetism can also be found in matter in general, including the Earth, which behaves like a large magnet due to the presence of a magnetic field.
Magnets are formed when the atoms, in certain materials such as iron, nickel or cobalt, have electrons that move in the same direction, generating a net magnetic field in the material. The magnetic poles of a magnet are called ‘north’ and ‘south’, and They attract or repel each other depending on their orientation. relative.
Concept of magnetism in physics
In physics magnetism is a property that certain materials have that manifests itself through the attraction or repulsion between objects, due to the existence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field is a region of space in which an electric charge or a moving magnet experiences a magnetic force.
Magnetism originates from the electrical nature of matter, since moving electrical charges generate a magnetic field. In most materials, electric charges move in random directions, which gives rise to a zero magnetic field. However, in certain materials like iron and cobalt, electric charges can line up to generate a net magnetic field, making them magnets.
magnetism is critical to many devices and technologiessuch as electric motors, generators, hard drives, and speakers. Furthermore, magnetism is an important tool in scientific research, used in fields such as materials physics, particle physics, and biology.
How is magnetism generated?
Magnetism is generated when moving electrical charges, such as electrons, create a magnetic field around them, which means that any electric current in a conductor can produce a magnetic field. If the current moves in a closed loop, the generated magnetic field will be even stronger.
In magnetic materials, such as iron, the atoms have electrons that move in a preferential direction, generating a net magnetic field in the material. This alignment of the electrons occurs due to the interaction between electrons and atomic nucleias well as the way in which the atoms are arranged in the material.
Magnetism can also be generated by interaction between electric and magnetic fields. If an electric charge moves through a magnetic field, it will experience a force perpendicular to its motion and to the field, known as the Lorentz force. In turn, this force can generate an electric current, which produces its own magnetic field.
Electromagnetism refers to the interaction between electric fields and magnetic fields, and has been fundamental in the development of modern technology. Inductors, for example, are essential components in many electronic devices, since they allow the storage of magnetic energy.
He terrestrial magnetism It is also an important example of the interaction between magnetic fields, as the Earth acts like a large magnet with a magnetic field that extends from the core to the atmosphere. This terrestrial magnetic field is essential for life on Earth, because protects it from particles charged of the solar wind. Terrestrial magnetism has been used for navigation for centuries. Compasses use a magnetic needle that aligns with the Earth’s magnetic field, allowing navigators to determine its position and orientation. This is an example of how magnetism has been used to improve our understanding and control of the world around us.
What are the characteristics and properties of magnetism?
Characteristics and properties of magnetism include:
- attraction and repulsion: Magnets have two magnetic poles, north and south, which attract or repel each other depending on their relative orientation.
- Magnetic field: Magnets and magnetic materials generate a magnetic field around them, which can be measured and is expressed in units called ‘teslas‘.
- Magnetic induction: The magnetic field can induce an electric current on a nearby conductor, known as magnetic induction.
- Magnetization: Magnetic materials can become magnetized, which means that can be turned into magnets by exposure to an external magnetic field.
- Gauss’s law: Gauss’s law for magnetism states that the magnetic flux through a closed surface is proportional to the amount of charge magnetic contained within the surface.
- magnetic force: Moving electric charges and magnets experience a magnetic force when moving through a magnetic field. This force is perpendicular both to movement and to the magnetic field and is governed by Lorentz’s law.
- magnetic domain: Magnetic materials have small regions called magnetic domains, where the electrons are aligned in the same direction. The direction of the magnetic domains determines the global orientation of the magnetic field of the material.
These are just some of the characteristics and properties of magnetism, many of which have important applications in technology and science.
What are the types of magnetism?
There are several types of magnetism, each with distinct characteristics and properties. Some of the most common types of magnetism are:
- ferromagnetic magnetism: This type of magnetism is found in materials such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, materials that can be magnetized and maintain their magnetism even in the absence of an external magnetic field. In ferromagnetic materials, the atoms have electrons aligning in the same direction to create a net magnetic field.
- paramagnetic magnetism: This type of magnetism is found in materials such as aluminum and platinum. Paramagnetic materials have electrons that are not aligned in one direction preferentially, but may momentarily align when exposed to an external magnetic field. This temporal alignment increases the magnetic susceptibility of the material.
- diamagnetic magnetism: This type of magnetism is found in materials such as copper and silver. Diamagnetic materials have electrons moving in pairs and they rotate in opposite directions, resulting in the material having no net magnetic field. Diamagnetic materials experience a slight repulsion when exposed to an external magnetic field.
- antiferromagnetic magnetism: This type of magnetism is found in some materials made up of atoms with electrons that align in pairs and rotate in opposite directions different atomic sublattices. The magnetic fields of the sublattices cancel each other, resulting in a net absence of magnetism.
- ferrimagnetic magnetism: This type of magnetism is found in some materials composed of atoms with electrons lining up in pairs and spinning in opposite directions in different atomic sublattices, but with different magnetic moments, which results in a net magnetic field. Ferrimagnetic materials have a weaker magnetization than ferromagnetic materials.
What is natural magnetism?
Natural magnetism refers to the property of certain materials to attract objects iron, such as magnetite. This phenomenon has been known to humans since ancient times, and has been used by compasses for navigation for several centuries.
The magnetite is a mineral that contains iron and is ferromagnetic, which means that it can be magnetized and maintain its magnetism even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Magnetite is commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and can also be found in river and lake sediments.
What is artificial magnetism?
Artificial magnetism refers to the ability of humans to create magnetic fields using materials and devices designed specifically for that purpose. Unlike natural magnetism, which is found in certain materials such as lodestone, artificial magnetism is created by human intervention.
Artificial magnets are created by placing ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, nickel or cobalt, in an external magnetic field. The external magnetic field aligns the electrons in the atomic structure of the material, creating a net magnetic field. Artificial magnets can be permanent or temporary, depending on the material and the method of creation.
Artificial magnets have a wide variety of applications, such as in the creation of speakers or magnetic levitation systems. Furthermore, artificial magnets are also used in scientific research to study magnetism and its properties.
What is the difference between magnetism and electricity?
Generally speaking, magnetism It refers to the property of certain materials to attract or repel objects, while electricity refers to the flow of electrons through a conductor. Although these two properties may seem different, they are closely related, since the movement of electrons through a conductor produces a magnetic field.
One of the main differences between magnetism and electricity is that magnetic fields are produced by moving chargeswhile electric fields can be produced by stationary charges.
Another important difference is that magnetic fields they are dipolarwhich means that they have a north pole and a south polewhile electric fields are monopolar, which means they have only one type of charge (positive or negative).