There are qualities that distinguish us from other objects in this world. There is something that makes us living beings, and it is a tiny unit that makes up our body. We talk about the cell which makes up the tissues of the organism. And the cell, let’s say, has its own vitality. So, without a doubt, they are the ones that give existence to our body.
Each cell carries out a life process in which reproduction is not lacking. Therefore, these are very small units, they perform a process called cell reproduction. Which is also known as cell division. The whole procedure has its parts, and their importance. Likewise, research in this field has shown it by the scientific method. Next we will explain what it is and everything related to cell reproduction.
Definition of cell reproduction in biology
Reproduction is a process of action that gives the possibility to generate a copy. What you get is something with similar characteristics. The word cell refers to the cell. This being the main constituent of existence. In the biological field we speak then of cell reproduction. In which the division of them occurs from a mother cell. From this, daughter cells with similar biological characteristics are obtained.
In multicellular organisms, cell division is essential for growth. The mother divides into two cells. daughters, giving life to new ones in the cell cycle. However, in the case of some animals, there comes a time when the cells stop doing this process. And that is when cellular aging begins. Therefore, a certain deterioration of the organism also begins.
The sequence of base pairs in DNA it is what determines the genetic information contained in a gene. The DNA sequence encodes the information necessary to make proteins, which are the molecules that perform most cellular functions in living organisms. Cell division or cell reproduction consists of two types. Mitosis and meiosis. One is what makes up the process of reproducing new cells. And another, that of the specific sexual cells, ovules and spermatozoa.
Characteristics of cell reproduction
Some general characteristics of cell reproduction are:
- the stem cell divides into daughter cells that are genetically identical (mitosis) or different (meiosis).
- cell reproduction It is a fundamental process for survival. and growth of organisms.
- Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and meiosis in reproductive cells (gametes).
- In mitosis, the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, while in the meiosis is halved.
- cell reproduction can be asexual (mitosis) or sexual (meiosis).
- In meiosis, the daughter cells they are genetically different due to genetic recombination and independent segregation of chromosomes.
- Cellular reproduction is a complex process that requires coordination of many processes cells, including DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis.
How is cell reproduction classified? – Guys
Reproduction can occur either sexually or asexually. For example, there are organizations that reproduce non-sexually they create identical copies of themselves. That is, something like clones. The genetic material (DNA) is the same as that of its only ancestor.
On the other hand, we find organisms that reproduce sexually. Where the union of two parents is necessary. In both types there are somewhat complex processes, which have been generally divided into two classifications:
Cellular reproduction by mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis is what occurs in unicellular cells. In this case, reproduction is asexual by cell division. DNA is copied and divided equivalently between the two new cells, that is, the daughters. In mitosis, the mother doubles her number of chromosomes before dividing in two. Which means, giving life to two cells.
However, how interesting data this process must be regulated. Genes are in charge of controlling it. Otherwise, some health problems would be inevitable, for example, cancer. In this case, there is a lack of control in the genes that regulate the cell cycle. Cells begin to reproduce excessively. Which leads to the formation of tumors.
In meiosis, the origin of life occurs from two parents. In this case, the ovaries and sperm are protagonists of the process. Well, both cells, They are the product of meiosis. Here is the unique combination of genetic material. The chromosomes are mixed in half, which means that there are 46, of which each gamete (egg and sperm) contribute 23.
This process allows the combination or mixture of DNA. At the moment when a new life is being formed. Therefore, each gamete will have the unique genetic code of the recent combination in an individual.
Indirect and direct cell reproduction
This is another name by which to call cell reproduction. Then we find the direct and indirect. In a simple way, the first relates to the simplest division. This occurs in organisms such as bacteria. The progenitor cell divides in two. This leads to new ones.
- Indirect (Mitosis): in the body occurs in diploid cells. Which have double number of chromosomes. In this case, the DNA is duplicated and distributed equally among the cells that were obtained from the indirect process.
- Reductional (Meiosis): Here the sex cells originate. Differentiating a bit, we see that in mitosis reproduction is and gives rise to diploid cells. On the other hand, in this type of procreation haploids result. That is to say, they are not complete, and would end in fertilization. In order to create life from new cells.
It receives the name of reduction because in this type of reproduction the number of chromosomes is reduced. Remember that the new individual will be formed from the combination of DNA from both parents.
What are the phases of cell reproduction?
For the reproduction of cells there is the so-called cell cycle. Which is made up of a series of moments that lead to the origin of new cells. A chromosome is a highly organized structure found in the nucleus of cells. This contains a large amount of genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Chromosomes occur in pairs in diploid cells. one copy of each pair from the father and mother. Below are the phases of cell reproduction:
- Interface: In this stage the cell spends most of its time. It is the longest. This is further divided into three phases:
G1 phase: this is where it all begins. It lasts from six to twelve hours and in it the cell is in preparation. It enlarges and performs various metabolic processes. Cell differentiation occurs. Changing the morphology of the cell.
S-phase: It is the synthesis stage. It has an estimate of ten to twelve hours to complete. Here the important thing is the duplication of the genetic content (DNA). This is identical for each of the daughter cells.
G2 phase: lasts in three and six hours. In the aforementioned stage, the genetic material is reorganized and the production of RNA and specialized proteins begins.
- Prophase: This is already the entrance to mitosis. Chromosomes already formed in S phase are grouped together in the nucleus. Also the membrane begins to tear.
- metaphase: Here the chromosomes are located in the sequence of a line. And now the cell is ready to divide.
- Anaphase: As the cytoplasm constricts, the number of chromosomes in the cell doubles. Similarly, the chromosomes and centromeres point to opposite sides.
- telophase: It is already the end of this process. The two daughter cells are already formed with the same DNA as their parent. Each cell has its own membrane.
It is important to highlight and establish certain differences between mitosis and meiosis. In the first, diploid cells (full number of chromosomes) are created. On the other hand, in the second type haploids originate (they have half of the chromosomes).
Regarding the phases, the procedure is slightly modified. Well, in mitosis, while anaphase occurs, the pair of chromosomes who is in the nuclear center separates. On the other hand, in meiosis individual chromosomes line up during metaphase. Already in anaphase they separate.
Mitosis makes up cell reproduction of all cells of the organism. For its part, meiosis only deals with gametes (eggs and sperm).
How important is cell reproduction?
The significance of this reproduction process varies depending on which one we are talking about. In the case of mitosis, it is very important for body growth. Likewise, in the repair of damaged cells.
The lack of control in the cell cycle of mitosis is the cause of cancer cells. In this case, division is done excessively without proper genetic regulation. Hence there is talk of a mutation in the genes, which leads to the development of cancer. These cells evade immune controls as well as natural alerts. They indicate that the injured party must die due to the deterioration of their DNA.
However, they manage to escape the regulations. And they agglomerate to the point of forming masses or tumors. These abnormal cells can vary in level of genetic damage they have. That is, if the deterioration is not very serious, we are talking about benign. Instead, if the damage in the DNA material is dangerous, they would be malignant. The latter cause deterioration in the tissues of the organism.
On the other hand, it is pertinent to highlight the importance of meiosis. The main thing is that without her the perpetuation of the species is not possible. Also the variety in the DNA allows an offspring with a diverse genetics. In the same way, this same thing benefits the survival of the species, whatever it may be. Thanks to cell reproduction, either by mitosis or meiosis, life is possible. Remember that we are made up of trillions of cells. They are the basis of the existence of any being.