What is a real gas in organic chemistry? – What they are, characteristics and formulas
Chemistry is a discipline, which is responsible for the investigation of matter. And gas is a substance of low density. It has no particular volume or format and adapts to the container where it is preserved. It is composed of atoms that through forces between molecules interact and cover a limited volume. They can be true or abstract gases.
Definition and concept of what is a real gas
Also known as a non-ideal gas. It is considered true when subjected to high pressures and minimum temperature. It performs a thermodynamic action and exhibits changes that are related to the behavior of an ideal gas. This activity variation is due in principle to the interactions between the particles.
Each Molecule has a variety. It can be presented as diatomic (oxygen or nitrogen), monatomic (helium or neon) or heavier gases (carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia). It is impossible to compress it indefinitely because its densification capacity is relative to pressure and temperature.
It is found in nature with a variety of chemical structures and does not demonstrate idealized behavior. To fully understand the concept, we need to liquid or solid elements They can be turned into a gas through different processes.
This change implies a rearrangement in the physical particularities of the bodies, as in the case of their state of incorporation. However, its properties do not change because the substances maintain the same form, which means that chemical bonds do not break and new bodies are not created. They are classified according to their natural chemical properties:
- Combustible or flammable: are those that can generate explosive reactions in the presence of oxygen or oxidants.
- Corrosive: those that, when coming into contact with other elements, expose them to changes related to the severe decrease causing damage.
- oxidizers: They allow sustaining a flame or flammable activity, because they stimulate combustion in other elements.
- Toxic: They represent a risk for individuals because they harm health, due to the particles that enter the body of living beings.
- inert: They present little or no reactive activity, with exceptions in certain situations.
What are the characteristics of a real gas?
The characteristics of a real gas They may be:
- Has a thermodynamic attitude.
- Comes from qualitative way.
- Presents itself because there is high energy and low temperature.
- between the particles attraction power develops or rejection.
- It’s in nature.
- does not hold infinite growth.
- the molecules they have no volume.
What is the behavior of real gases?
To know its performance, equations of state are made. This type of gas must be used close to the place where the gases are reduced and close to the critical points. These are procedures that analyze three properties of the gas: pressure, body and temperature. In addition to the amount of substance and density.
- Volume: is the space it occupies. Your unit to evaluate it in the International System of units is the cubic meter (m3), however, liter (L) and milliliter (mL) can also be used. The size of these depends on the container, since they adapt to its shape.
- Pressure: intensity that is implemented in a specific environment. Particularly, in gases, the activity corresponds to the power exerted on each of the gas particles in an environment. Its SI unit is the pascal (Pa)., but environmental scenarios are used regularly. Likewise, the concept of atmospheric pressure is raised, which is the force exerted in the environment on human beings, or in other words the mass of air that is surrounding individuals and its unit is atm.
- Temperature: It is the amount of kinetic energy possessed by the particles of a body. This means that the higher the pressure, the more it exists. The unit of standardized measure in the SI is the Kelvin (K)but we can find that degrees Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F) are used.
- Substance: It is the primordial component of the bodies, sensitive to changes in shape that characterize it by physical or chemical properties, which reacts through the senses.
- Density: It is commonly used in the studies carried out by these sciences. It is a scalar quantity which refers to the dimension of mass found in a body marked per unit volume.
What is the formula for ideal gases?
The equation that represents the state of this type of gas is reflected through the Ideal Gas Law. It is made up of particles that have no attraction. no repulsion between them. The ones that come closest to their behavior are the monatomic ones in circumstances of low pressure and high temperature.
This equation is a mathematical formula that details the behavior of the gas, using variables such as volume, pressure and temperature. It is noteworthy that this steam can approach compliance with the Law (PV = nRT) but with detailed conditions, producing the need to change some variables in the law.
Scientists and researchers contributed their input to modify and adapt this equation, resulting in a combination of Boyle-Mariotte, Charles, and Gay Lussac’s laws with Avogadro’s law. It is argued that if various gaseous substances are immersed in equal volumes and subjected to pressure and temperature in equal proportions, they have the same number of particles. Thus, the ideal gas equation of state is:
PV = nRT
where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the emanation constant equal to J/Kmol.
What is the difference between the ideal gas and the real gas?
This is what distinguishes an ideal gas:
- HE conforms to the law.
- The particles are pointy and they do not take up space.
- under no conditions there is intermolecular interaction.
- Your smoothie does not proceed.
- The size of its particles is tiny.
However, a real gas differs by:
- It conforms to the ideal gas law. only when it comes to high temperatures and low pressures.
- Particles take up space and they have volume.
- forces between molecules they are present.
- Proceed your smoothie.
- The size of its particles does not decrease under conditions of low temperature and high pressure.
Examples of a real gas in chemistry and thermodynamics
As an example of the real ones, we can name a set of them whose treatment is close to that of the ideals, because they have characteristics with certain similarities, as long as pressure and temperature conditions be the normal ones. Namely they are:
- Nitrogen (N2).
- Oxygen (O2).
- Radon (Rn).
- Neon (Ne).
- Carbon dioxide (CO2).
- Krypton (Kr).
- Hydrogen (H2).
- Helium (He).
- Xenon (Xe).
It should be remembered that real gases are those that have a thermodynamic behavior and that leads to not following the same equation of state as the ideal ones. In high pressure and low temperature, it is necessary that gases be considered as true, since it is there when the interactions of their particles increase.
The primary and outstanding difference between ideal and real gases is that the latter cannot be compressed all the time, since its compressibility is measured according to pressure and temperature levels.
Now, here are some examples related to real gases:
- Ammonia (NH3).
- Propane (CH3CH2CH3).
- Ethane (CH3CH3).
- Butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3).
- Ethene (CH2CH2).
- Methane (CH4).
In the daily life of individuals, gas can be used commonly in homes. When a pressure cooker is heated, the gas inside it increases the force. In medicine oxygen and nitrous oxide are used by humans. Gases are everywhere.
From the mass called atmosphere that is breathed as air, through the emanation generated within the intestine of the living being, to flammable gases used in stoves and ovens. In conclusion, it is observed that they are the most ethereal form in nature and common in the daily life of individuals. It is important to know well about this topic so that you do not have any problems on your next slide.