Through a study called quantum hydrodynamics, Piotr Kapitsa, Don Misener and John F. Allen discovered the superfluid in 1937. It occurs at the microscopic level from the quantum. It is a state of matter. Happens when a liquid loses its density and a resistance effect is produced. In this way, it has the ability to transfer heat through thin capillaries.
What does the term superfluid mean?
Superfluidity is a quality that stands out because fluids present levels of viscosity and are the opposite of when They move by internal friction. That is, the body or substance has the possibility of moving without losing kinetic energy.
It is a phenomenon that presents liquid helium in its varieties and that was discovered 30 years after superconductivity. Also, he has the ability to go through the walls of a movie.
It is achieved from the instant in which the liquid cools to temperatures that are close to absolute zero. It is a physical manifestation that reaches the limit of the process to the perfect point of stopping the activity that is developing and freezing at a high temperature.
But there is an exception: Helium, which is a element deep in structure and inertgives interesting movements and derives from the nuclear reactions that take place inside the stars.
Of this two stable isotopes are recorded, Helium-3 and Helium-4, that also dragged by the solar wind are on the surface of the Moon. When talking about isotopes, they are the variety of a component distinguished by the number of neutrons and protons within its nucleus. It is the second lightest element and it interacts little, in addition to constituting more than 20% of the mass of the universe.
These two isotopes of Helium 3 and 4 have two electrons and are differentiated by the numerical value that makes up the nucleus. He 4 has two neutrons and 3 with only one, this being the lightest.
Both atoms function in the study of the effects produced by quantum counts of Fermi-Dirac statistics on the half-integer spin portions, and the Bose-Einstein, which is followed by the integer spin atoms.
To understand the behavior of Helium, it is necessary to analyze based on quantum mechanics of the particles that make it up. These in conclusion are related to Physics that provides the theoretical framework to understand them.
When it comes to its creation, helium gas is cooled to a few degrees above zero. This compresses it and in turn releases it through a nozzle. As it expands, it cools rapidly.
as fluid has some physical properties namely:
- Goo: It is the force or rejection that the elements show to the possible alterations that hinder the movement.
- Density: Taking into consideration the number of particles that exist in a body of fluid, they may have a higher or lower concentration.
- Volume: It is the dimension that the substance occupies in a particular zone. It takes into account the length, width and height of the same.
- Pressure: It is the power that the mass executes on the bodies that are submerged in it.
- Surface tension: It is the necessary force required to intensify the scope and space of a fluid, that is, it resists growing its surface.
- Capillarity: This is a cohesive force that causes liquid to move up a capillary tube against gravity.
Likewise, there are types of fluids according to diversity of criteria:
- Ideals: With constant density and zero viscosity. They are irrotational and do not make whirlwinds inside. They are also stationary, which means that all particles passing through a point have the same speed.
- Real: Friction occurs in its layers and this generates viscosity.
From another perspective it is arranged that the fluids have the option of being Newtonian and non-Newtonian based on the viscosity pattern by which they are guided:
- Newtonians: They obey Newton’s law of viscosity.
- Non-Newtonians: His behavior is deeper and more analysis. They are classified as: with period-independent density and with time-dependent viscosity, which makes them even more complex.
What are the characteristics of superfluids?
These have particularities punctual:
- Capacity of get into tiny spaces and climb above your own level.
- lack of friction, since they do not perceive resistance.
- They have properties like quantum superposition and interference.
- Some have the ability to carry electricity without resistance and without losing energy.
- Count on a transition temperature.
- Sometimes eddies of vortices appear that are persistent and with the particularity of moving without friction.
- These are tiny and intermingle. They follow their own quantum laws and they have atomic dimensions and ways of spinning like a tornado.
- They have the ability to split into two parts but without physical separation.
- They can overcome any porous matter.
- remain static and stationary.
- They have the ability to go through a solid object or having a non-porous surfacethanks to its powerful oscillation force that reaffirms the foundations of Quantum Physics against those of Albert Einstein.
What are the perfect types of fluids?
In general, these lack density, which means that can flow before a force without presenting resistance and there are two types:
- Incompressible: When its volume remains constant, regardless of the pressure it is subjected to. Fluids such as liquids, gases or air approach this state according to their conditions and properties. Its compressive strength is determined by the volumetric value with the relationship between the pressure change and the density variation.
- Ideal: They are the ones devoid of viscosity, which means that they are the ones that do not spread hot energy when they flow. They do not experience rotation or internal resistance to flow. In addition, they do not move around their center of mass, but instead can move in a circular pattern.
What are the perfect fluids?
They are part of the mechanics that details how it behaves in an ideal and simple way from the mathematical point of view. They do not have imperfections, lack density and do not present turbulence or energy losses. In these, the speed It is guided by Bernoulli’s laws. which are physical principles that give an explanation of how a gas or liquid moves in relation to the acceleration of movement. They are also guided by the Navier-Stokes equation of partial derivatives, which describes the relationship between speed and pressure, force and internal friction.
What are imperfect fluids?
They are also known as non-Newtonians. The viscosity is not constant and varies according to the deformation conditions. It is difficult to describe their behavior easily on the basis of Newton’s law of viscosity, which states that breaking force is proportional to the rate of change. In them the density is not constant and varies according to the deformation conditions. They can display nonlinear properties such as dilatancy or pseudoplasticity.
How is a superfluid produced?
It originates when a matter cools to a very low temperature and causes changes in its molecular activity. The atom or atoms condense into a minimum energy and move synchronously and this causes the fluid to show individual properties. The first superfluid that was discovered was liquid heliumand from there other materials have been found that can act in the same way as noble gases.
Are superfluids and plasma the same?
They are different states of matter. The first is a body that loses its density when it cools down and flows without resistance, in addition to having the ability to move through holes without friction. While plasma is defined as the state in which atoms are ionized and no electrons.
The matter on planet earth is charged with particles that gravitate around the nucleus of the atom. These have a negative weight that attracts them towards the positive charge, and this causes the effect of orbiting around that center.
By the time they electrons are no longer trapped Around the nucleus, the plasma state occurs, and the effect causes a gas to transform into many electrons and the ions to be positively charged. On the other hand, the superfluid, which is also called Bose-Einsteines condensate, is characterized by the total lack of viscosity, so that in a closed circuit, it flows without friction.
Examples of superfluids or perfect fluids
Some examples are:
- helium-3 superfluid at extremely low temperatures.
- helium-4 with degrees close to absolute zero.
- liquid hydrogen similarly at reduced temperatures.
- A quantum gas, also known as Bose-Einstein condensate, which can conduct without resistance in the absence of impurities.
- in everyday life vehicle lubricants or shampoo are superfluid.
- helium at very low levels.
- The water at temperatures minimum.
In conclusion, they are a type of substance that has unique properties and its application in everyday life it’s a bit limited. However, it is widely implemented in fields such as physics, technology, general scientific research, and medicine. Its study can lead to outstanding advances in the development of new technologies and in scientific research for the progress of humanity.