What are subatomic particles? – Characteristics and properties of subatomic particles
subatomic particles They constitute matter at the subatomic level. These include protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are the building blocks of atoms. The study of it has led to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter and has enabled the development of advanced technologies that have transformed the modern world.
Definition of Subatomic Particles
They are the smallest particles that make up matter. They are found in the atomic nucleus. and around it. Protons contain positive charge found in the center of molecules. Its amount in the nucleus determines its atomic number and therefore its identity as a chemical element and its atomic energy.
Neutrons are subatomic particles with no electrical charge that They are also found in the center of atoms. These, along with protons, are responsible for the mass of the nucleus.
negatively charged electrons They orbit around the molecular center. These determine its properties and its ability to form chemical bonds.
In addition to the named types, There are also smaller ones. like quarks. They are combined to form protons and neutrons, and leptons. In total they include electrons and other similar particles. There are also bosons. These are responsible for the electromagnetic force and the strong and weak nuclear energy.
What are the characteristics of subatomic particles?
They have a wide variety of qualities that distinguish them from other larger particles:
- Size: they are much smaller than any object visible to the naked eye. For example, a hydrogen atom has a width of 0.1 nanometers (nm), while a human hair contains a diameter of 100,000 nm.
- Electrical charge: Particles such as protons and electrons have a capacity for energy. Protons are positive, electrons, on the other hand, are negative, while neutrons keep a neutral look.
- Mass: All subatomic particles harbor weights, although some contain more than others. Protons and neutrons have similar volumes, while electrons are much less massive.
- dual behavior: They exhibit wave and particle properties. Which means they act like waves and particles in different situations.
- Fundamental interactions: They are also related through the power of nature. Such as the electromagnetic force, strong and weak nuclear energy, and gravity.
- Quantum changes: They can experience quantum variations. Like superposition, entanglement and quantum mechanics, which are phenomena that are not observed in macroscopic objects.
What mass do subatomic particles have?
They have different volumes. They are measured in units amu or kilograms. The approximate masses of the main subatomic particles are detailed below:
- Protons: They have a weight of 1.0073 uma or 1.6726 × 10^-27 kg.
- Neutrons: They are from a density greater than protons, of 1.0087 amu or 1.6749 × 10^-27 kg.
- Electrons: They are much less massive, have an approximate mass of 0.0005 amu or 9.1094 × 10^-31 kg.
- Quarks: They are the smallest known and it is believed that they do not exist as free particles. These have a very minute mass, but cannot be measured individually due to their confined nature in protons and neutrons.
What electrical charge do subatomic particles have?
They also contain electricity in different values. Protons are positive while electrons are negative. Neutrons, on the other hand, are neutral.
This It is measured in units called coulombs (C). The electric charge of the electron is -1.602 × 10^-19 C, which means it is negative. On the other hand, that of the proton is equal and opposite to that of the electron, that is, +1.602 × 10^-19 C, which explains that it is positive. Neutrons do not contain electricity and are therefore neutral.
The charge of subatomic particles is fundamental to explain many physical phenomena. Such as the structure of the atom, electromagnetic interactions and the formation of chemical bonds. Charged subatomic particles are manipulated by electric and magnetic fields. It can also be detected and measured through various experimental methods.
What are the components of subatomic particles?
They have different elements. depending on the type. The main components of some common subatomic particles are detailed below:
- Atoms: They are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus, while electrons orbit around it.
- Electrons: They are elementary particles that they do not have smaller components. However, they can be described in terms of their properties, such as their mass, electric charge, and spin.
- Protons and Neutrons: They are made up of quarks which are elementary particles that are believed not to exist as free particles. Protons are made up of two ‘up’ quarks and one ‘down’ quark, while neutrons are made up the other way around.
- Smaller subatomic particles: In addition to quarks, There are other smaller ones. like leptons and bosons. Leptons are elementary particles, while bosons carry the photon, gluon, the W and Z boson, and the Higgs boson.
What is the classification of subatomic particles?
They can be categorized in various ways, depending on the criteria used. Next, we will talk about some of the most common categories:
- By their mass: They can be classified into two groups according to their volume: with density (protons, neutrons and electrons) and those without (photons and gluons).
- By their electrical charge: They can be classified into three groups according to their energy: positive (protons), negative (electrons) and neutral (neutrons).
- By function: They can be classified according to their task: the particles that make up matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons). Then, those that transmit the fundamental forces of nature (photons and gluons). Finally, those that decay and are produced in high energy processes (muons, pions and kaons).
- By their spin: They can be classified according to their spin, which is a quantum property that measures intrinsic rotation of the molecule. Those with integer spin are called bosons, while particles with half-integer spin are known as fermions.
Your ranking is important in physics, since it helps scientists to better understand the nature of matter and the fundamental forces. Furthermore, this classification has led to the identification of new molecules and the formulation of theories, such as the standard model of physics.
What are fundamental subatomic particles?
Are those that cannot be divided into smaller and are considered the basic blocks of matter. The Standard Model of particle physics describes three types of fundamental subatomic particles:
- Leptons: are the ones that do not experience strong interaction, one of the four fundamental forces, are negative or neutral electrically charged. Examples of leptons include the electron, muon, and tau, as well as their corresponding neutrinos.
- Quarks: are particles that experience all the fundamental forces and have fractional electric charge. They combine to form hadrons, like protons and neutrons. There are six types of quarks: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.
- Bosons: they are particles that spread fundamental forces, such as the photon that spreads electromagnetic energy or the Higgs boson that transmits mass. They have integer spin and can be massive or weightless.
In addition to the fundamental particles, there are others such as inns, which are made up of a quark and an antiquark, or baryons, which are made up of three quarks. These are not considered fundamental because they can be broken down into smaller particles.
Your research and interaction It has led to important discoveries and hypotheses in physics. Like the Standard Model, which is the theory that describes fundamental subatomic particles and their interactions.
What subatomic particles are the constituents of electric charge?
the constituents They are electrons and protons. Electrons have negative energy and orbit around the nucleus of a molecule, which is made up of protons and neutrons. Protons, on the other hand, are positive and sit at the center of the atom along with neutrons, which are neutral. The capacity of an atom is considered neutral because the positive energy of the nucleus is equal to the negative one that orbits around it.
Generally speaking, the ability It can be measured in units of elementary charge, which is the electrical variation of an electron or a proton. An electron has a negative charge equal to -1 unit of elementary charge, while a proton has a positive capacity equal to +1 unit of elementary charge. The total charge of a particle is measured by adding the reserves of its components.
Understanding these and their properties has led to the development of modern physics and has enabled the creation of advanced technologies that have transformed the world.
What are the subatomic particles that make up an atom?
They are protons, neutrons and electrons. The nucleus of the atom, located in the center of the atom, is composed of these elements, which are particles with mass. Protons are positive, while neutrons are not. The number of protons at the center of a molecule determines the component’s atomic number and therefore its chemical identity.
Electrons orbit around the nucleus and are negative. Also, they do not have significant mass compared to other elements. Its amount can vary and determines the net charge of the atom. If an atom has the same number of electrons and protons, its capacity is neutral, but if there are more or fewer electrons than protons, it will have a net positive or negative electrical reserve.
The interaction of all these in a molecule It is what bases its chemical and physical properties. For example, the way in which the electrons are distributed around the nucleus determines its electronic configuration. In addition, its ability to generate chemical bonds with other atoms.