What are neutral substances in chemistry? – Definition and characteristics of neutral substances
The world of organic and inorganic chemistry is very wide and vast, due to the implications and importance that it has in the natural order of things. Having said that, the types of substances, compounds and molecules around us are of an innumerable variety. In this way, the study of it requires great detail and a wide range of specifications in its field.
In this order of ideas, there are a lot of types of substances that make up the world of chemistry. And, furthermore, they are classified according to its composition and properties in the environment. So that is why today we will talk about neutral substances in chemistry, and what implications they have in the world.
Concept and definition of a neutral substance
Within chemical substances, there are many properties within that define them in the environment. One of them is acidity. Acidity is determined by the level of acid that a substance contains. This property refers to the number of hydrogen ions in H20, or more popularly known: water. In this way, it allows the creation of salts through the combination of certain metals after their fusion.
On the other hand, there is also a meter created to be able to know the acidity level of a substance. Because it is important to know the acid value it has in order to apply it correctly in chemical processes.
This measurement is known as the “pH Scale”. This meter is divided into digits between 1 and 14. Being that, the higher the number, the less acid a substance is. And, the lower, the more acidic it is. Said standard is obtained based on the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the raw materials.
Among these measurements, alkaline substances represent those with the least acid. Conversely, the acids are those that contain less alkalinity in a solution. However, there is a level that includes the balance between the two, and therefore, it is not unimportant to the rest.
Neutral substances are those that contain a balanced level between acidity and alkalinity within the pH Scale. Explained this in numbers, are the solutions that contain a 7 in the calculation applied to said measure. In this way, they do not have any predominant side, and both are kept within the composition of the substance.
Additionally, such solutions may have some acid and some base, but never in a certain dominant way. If it happens, it would no longer be a neutral substance. Furthermore, they contain a balance between H+ and OH- ions. This is found on the hydroxyl group.
What are the characteristics of a neutral substance?
Being the substances that have the least impact on a certain raw material or chemical compounds due to their properties, their characteristics are very isolated. That is to say, that he always remains on the sidelines, unlike those that are alkaline and acid.
In this way, one of the most determining traits it has is to stick to both ends of the pH Scale. Thus, it has a state similar to the one that they compose the H+ and OH-.
Another of its properties is that this type of substance is not corrosive. That is does not damage or corrupt any surface when coming into contact with it. This is a very particular feature. Because, an acid or basic substance can achieve corrosion, depending on the pH level that they contain in their composition (especially the first).
They also take on a pale color on litmus paper. This material is used to know the level of acidity or alkalinity based on the color that a compound acquires when it comes into contact with it. This way, if it turns an intense blue color, It means that it is a very basic substance. On the other hand, if the solution is very acidic, it takes on a reddish color. Precisely, the pale color of neutral substances reflects a bit of both colors in its spectrum.
What is the pH of a neutral substance?
As we said before, a pH is defined through the level of acid or base that a substance contains. Thus, the higher the pH, the more basic the solution. And, if the level is lower, the more acid it is. On the pH scale, the measurement of its values is done through numbers, composed in a range that goes from number 1 to number 14. The numbers closest to 1 are acidic, and those closest to 14 are basic. .
The pH value lies in the level of hydrogen within the substance, based on the hydroxyl group and the ion or ions composed of it. That being said, the pH is established through logarithmic measures. Therefore, each figure is a multiple of 10 in relation to the previous one, and so on until reaching the top (14).
Remember that the acidity or alkalinity of a substance lies in the amount of hydrogen ions it has. Therefore, while less hydrogen ions have, the more acidic the solution, and the more ions, the more basic the mixture. On the other hand, the pH scale is classified according to the numbers it covers and how it is referred to, according to its position:
- 0-1: They encompass the highest acidity levels of a substance.
- 23: Although it is not as acidic as its previous ones, it still has a moderate level of acidity.
- 4-5: Here it covers a fairly low degree of acid, compared to the previous ranking.
- 6-7-8: The 7 indicates absolute neutrality. That is, it is neither very acidic nor very basic. Numbers 7 and 8 border on neutrality, with a bit of acidity and alkalinity, respectively.
- 9-10: At this degree, substances begin to have a more alkaline property.
- 11-12: They contain a moderate alkaline level, so the acidity is practically non-existent.
- 13-14: The 14 represents the most basic degree of a substance. That is, it does not have any acid in it. Likewise, 13 is the closest to your property.
Thus, 7 is the base number in which a neutral substance is established, and in which the balance between the acid and the basic reaches its limit point. However, 6 and 8 can also be classified within this section.
When is a substance said to be neutral?
The neutrality of a substance is based on the fact that there is no predominance or settlement between the ions of hydrogen that there is, depending on whether they are H or OH-. That is why they are at 7 on the pH scale, exemplifying this through a numerical value. On the other hand, it can also be said that its “Hydrogen Potential” (according to the proper meaning of pH) remains the same in both parts of the swing.
Although this type of substance can also have a little acidity or an extra alkaline level (pH values 6 and 8), they are always kept in a neutral status as dominant. That is, it offers a very moderate number of BIDS (offers).
Examples of neutral substances in chemistry
There are a number of solutions that yield a balanced pH measurement. The reason is that this establishment (in which George Parker Bidder made a small contribution) allows the ease of classifying substances. A common example is milk, which contains a regulated pH at 6.5. However, it is not recommended to consume it if you suffer from heartburn, because it stimulates a decrease in the pH of the stomach.
Another common neutral substance is natural water. However, it can become more acidic when ionized. Still and sparkling mineral water fall within this classification. Finally, blood and saliva (about 7 both) They are also neutral substances, which are part of our body.